Here are ten articles about the long-term prognosis of various soft-tissue injuries published on PubMed, a government website which only publishes peer-reviewed articles from authoritative sources:
- Long-term prognosis of soft-tissue injuries of the neck published in J Bone Joint Surg Br.
- Prognostic factors in soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine published in Injury
- Evaluation of long-term prognosis in patients with whiplash syndrome published in Med. Pregl.
- The rate of recovery following whiplash injury published in Eur. Spine J.
- Findings and outcome in whiplash-type neck distortions published in Spine.
- Long-term outcome after whiplash injury. A 2-year follow-up considering features of injury mechanism and somatic, radiologic, and psychosocial findings published in Medicine.
- The effect of accident mechanisms and initial findings on the long-term course of whiplash injury published in J. Neurol.
- Soft-tissue injuries of the cervical spine. 15-year follow-up published in J Bone Joint Surg Br.
- ‘Whiplash injuries’ of the neck: a retrospective study by Injury.
- A descriptive analysis of disorders in patients 17 years following motor vehicle accidents published in Eur Spine J.
A large percentage of the population today suffers from back pain of some sort. Almost everyone will suffer back pain at some time in their life. Our back is made up of vertebrae, joints, disc, muscles and ligaments. Each on of these parts have a role to do in our. If we injury one or more of these parts, we feel pain and will need some sort of back pain treatment. Often our muscles or ligaments get sprained or strained from improper movement, sudden movement or even over use. The discs in our back can also get sprained, which may cause them to swell and rub against a nerve. Any of these situations may cause severe pain.
The type of back pain treatment we get for back pain depends on the amount of discomfort we’re in and the severity of the pain. Acute sudden pain or low back pain will often require bed rest the first day as well as ice for the first three days. A sudden onset of pain is usually the result of a fall, car accident or some sort of trauma. You may also feel like your back popped out of joint or snapped. Medical research has determined that after the first few days, part of your back pain treatment should to be as active as normal.
For chronic back pain that comes on slowly or lasts for months and i more of a dull pain, the back pain treatment that is usually recommended is heat and if that fails to work, then ice. It’s important to remember to use ice for acute back pain and heat for chronic back pain.
If you have been seeing a doctor for two weeks and have not seen improvement, a physical therapist will be recommended as part of your back pain treatment. Often your doctor will give you a prescription to see a physical therapist, but you may also choose to go on your own. The type of back pain treatment you have is ultimately your decision. The physical therapist will do an evaluation at your first visit to determine your history as well as the location and type of back pain you are experiencing.
The back pain treatment the therapist gives you will vary on the pain, but may include the use of ice, heat, relaxation stretches, massage and possibly ultrasound and electric stimulation. You will also be given a list of things to do at home such as specific exercises and a list of things to avoid doing.
How you sit on a chair or lay in bed will affect your back. Your therapist will show you the best way to sit, bend or lay down. You may have to learn correct methods to prevent further back problems.
Anyone that has ever had the unpleasant experience of having a muscle spasm knows how painful it is and a neck muscle spasm is no different. A neck muscle spasm is an involuntary tight muscle contraction that causes a person to experience severe neck pain. There are many causes and treatments for severe neck pain.
Severe neck pain is often the result of strained neck muscles caused by things such as intense exercises, degenerative changes from repetitive movements and trauma. The cervical spine, unlike the rest of your spine, only has a small amount of ligaments and muscles for protection. Conditions that have an adverse affect on the muscles and tendons often cause severe neck pain. If the joints narrow between the neck bones, caused by immune system attack, prolonged wear and tear or trauma, then the vertebrae in the neck grind together, creating stress and pressure on localized tendons, muscles, and nerves. This often causes severe neck pain and other symptoms such as arm, shoulder, and hand pain.
Some of several symptoms of severe neck pain include rupture of a disk or muscular strain from trauma. Many neck pain symptoms, unlike severe neck pain, develop slowly. Some people experience neck tenderness or stiffness in the morning or after watching television, reading, or working on their computer. Rheumatoid arthritis can cause the body’s immune system or natural defenses to attack a person’s joints and bones. Over time, the rheumatoid arthritis destroys body and neck joints causing stiffness and severe pain to the neck and other parts of the body. Osteoarthritis, a degenerative disease commonly affecting people over forty, can involve not only the neck joint but also other body joints. Neurological diseases such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease can cause stiffness or weakness of the neck muscles resulting in strain on the necks structures and muscles, resulting in severe neck pain.
Treatment for severe neck pain or chronic neck pain can vary depending upon the case. Some people find acupressure and acupuncture helps the muscles relax, which reduces their neck pain. For severe neck pain, doctors sometimes recommend strong anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, and painkillers. Anti-inflammatory drugs taken orally or by injection are usually only recommended in severe neck pain cases because serious side effects, such as infections, bone thinning, and internal bleeding can occur. Some doctors may recommend an over-the-counter drug that has few side effects but often reduce stiffness and discomfort for people suffering from mild neck pain. Never take any medication or start a neck exercise program without talking to your doctor first.
Chronic back pain is something that affects thousands of people each year, with many of them unable to get much relief, if any, from the pain. If you’re one of these many sufferers, you’re probably sick of chronic back pain and will do almost anything to get rid of it.
Anyone that has chronic back pain can tell you it can come from any number of causes. You may have pulled something in your back by lifting something heavy. It can be a result of an accident or it can develop from changes to the spine that comes with age. It may be a sharp pain that comes on suddenly and doesn’t go away or it may come on slowly gradually getting worse. When it doesn’t go away for 3 or more months, it is called chronic back pain as opposed to acute back pain, which comes and goes. The one thing all sufferers have in common is that after awhile they all get sick of chronic back pain affecting their daily lives.
Most people that develop chronic back pain will tolerate it for so long taking over the counter medications, using heating pads or just resting. After a period of time goes by with no relief, they usually discover they’ve had enough and are sick of chronic back pain and see a doctor. Unfortunately, many don’t go see a doctor for back pain because they don’t think it’s serious and try to wait it out. Often, by time they get to the point where they’re sick of chronic back pain ruling their lives, they have more serious damage then what they would have had if they’d seen a doctor much sooner.
Another thing chronic back pain sufferers tend to do is talk with friends that have suffered from the same kind of pain and do what their friends say they did to treat the pain when they got sick of chronic back pain. In some cases this helps, but many times it does more harm then good because no two people are the same. Symptoms that may seem similar to two different individuals can actually turn out to be very different. Many people also give prescription medication to others that they may have leftover from when they were hurt. This is a very unwise thing to do. Medication is prescribed for one individual and one individual only and may cause harm to another person.
If you are one of the unfortunate individuals that are sick of chronic back pain and have tried everything else, seek help from your doctor. It may be something that can be easily fixed or the start of something serious. If it is serious, the sooner you begin treatment, the better your prognosis.
A physical therapist, or physiotherapist, uses both manual therapy as well as mechanical or electrical therapy to aid a patient’s recovery process and prevention. They use a number of physiotherapy equipment to reduce and relieve pain, repair the joint and muscle, and to make the patient more comfortable during his or her visit.
A physiotherapy chair, bed, couch, or table is among the various type of physiotherapy equipment. This is generally a flat cushioned bench with cushioned head support and two to seven adjustable sections. The sections adjust to lay the patient completely flat on the back, or stomach, or can be folded into different degrees to become a chair or exercise table. The physiotherapist uses this to keep the patient comfortable while examining and diagnosing. It is also used while the patient performs specific exercises, or for massage therapy.
For exercise a physical therapist might bring in hand and leg weights, elastic bands, and exercise balls as part of their physiotherapy equipment. A balance ball chair is a large air filled ball securely attached to a small stool set on rollers with back support. The client may use this type of equipment for exercises that require support for less strain on the spine and back.
To relieve pain, acute and chronic, physiotherapy equipment such as a TENS, or Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation, system may be used. A TENS unit provides the patient with temporary pain relief without the added use of drugs, narcotics, or painful shots. The attachments are set on the skin over the affected area where the machine sends tiny electrical currents, or pulses to the nerves. The pulses scramble and block pain signals before they reach the brain and are said to raise the level of endorphins produced by the brain. Portable versions come as battery operated handheld devices.
Often included in a physical therapist’s physiotherapy equipment arsenal are items used in electrotherapy and ultrasound. Ultrasound devices generally consist of a round handheld wand, or probe. This probe is placed on the patient’s skin with the use of ultrasound gel to transmit ultrasonic waves through the skin. The vibration of the tissues produce heat that helps reduce pain while relaxing and repairing muscle tissue. Ultrasound can also produce a pulse for tissue relaxation when heat is not desired. Ultrasound can also be used to give medications that are needed below the skin. Usually used for patients unable to take needle injections. Often ultrasound wands come attached to a large electronic device connected to a cart.
Each physical therapist has her or his own method of treatment. These examples are just some of a long list of physiotherapy equipment used to treat patients.
The US is soon slated to become the leading hub for the field of sports medicine. It was in 1989 that sports medicine was recognized as a subspecialty of the American Board of Medical Specialties.
As per news reports, there are currently more than 70 sports medicine fellowships and approximately one thousand certified sports medicine specialists in the US.
Colleges and Institutions
In the recent years, a number of educational facilities have been established and are being offered for specializing in the field of sports medicine in the US.
In this section we give a brief overview of the establishments and main US colleges specializing in sports medicine.
A) American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)
The American College of Sports Medicine is a premier international organization in the field of sports medicine and exercise science and is one of the most well-known US colleges specializing in sports medicine.
It is the largest organization of its kind in the world and pioneers extensive efforts in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of sports-related injuries and the advancement of the science of exercise.
The services of the American College of Sports Medicine covers a vast gambit of healthcare services, offering facilities to different types of consumers, ranging from athletes and sportspersons to astronauts and individuals with chronic diseases and physical challenges.
B) American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine (AOASM)
The AOASM is also one of the most famous primary care-based sports medicine specialties and is also amongst the oldest US colleges specializing in sports medicine.
Established in 1984, it was formed with the objective of adopting a holistic and comprehensive approach to the prevention, diagnosis and management of sport and exercise-related injuries, disorder, dysfunctions and disease processes.
Apart from the US colleges specializing in sports medicine, the region also offers various others programs and modules for the purpose of training and qualification in the field.
The Division of Sports Medicine, based at Grand Forks, is one such organization, established with the vision to serve the field of sports medicine through education, research and service in sports medicine. This program provides direction for the BS in Athletic Training degree program, along with a medical elective in sports medicine and residency training in sports medicine.
In addition, there are other specialty programs organized for the purpose as well. The USA sports program is one of such facilities, which has been primarily designed to provide a comprehensive approach to the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of sports related injuries.
Such services are designed to serve a vast type of patients, ranging right from the recreational runners to the collegiate or professional athletes.